Understanding the Dunning-Kruger Effect (with Graph)

Understanding the Dunning-Kruger Effect (with Graph)

The concept of the Dunning-Kruger Effect can be easily explained, especially if we use a graph to show how it works.  It’s not rocket science.  Not that I know much about rocket science, but I do know enough to admit that I am far from being an expert.  See what I just did there?  I showed that I am not experiencing the Dunning-Kruger Effect on that subject.

You see, even though I possess very little expertise about the subject of launching rockets into space, I have seen them launched in TV.  I’ve watched movies on the complicated math equations it takes to launch a rocket.  I am fully aware that to be involved the process I need to know light years more than I do.

This does not mean that I am smarter than anyone else. It’s possible for anyone to find themselves under the Dunning-Kruger Effect when thinking about other issues.   The key to not falling victim to faulty thinking is acknowledging this simple fact:

‘the more you don’t know about something, the more likely it is that you will think you know a lot about it than you really do.

What is the Dunning-Kruger Effect?

In very simple terms, the Dunning-Kruger Effect happens when someone knows so little about a subject that they believe they are somewhat of an expert.  The more a person learns about anything at all, the more they realize how much they don’t know.  As they gain more knowledge through reading, listening to experts, and taking classes on the subject, they gradually cross a threshold where they are on their way to becoming a true expert and not just one who thinks they are.

Essentially, anyone can find themselves under the Dunning-Kruger effect when they have no expertise on an issue or subject.  Someone who is not musical has no business expressing their strong opinions on whether and popular singer or musician is talented or not.  Yet, you hear it all the time from opinionated people.  Again, this does not mean they a low IQ.  It simply means that on some subjects, their lack of expertise will make them sound foolish if they express their opinions on the subject. The same is true of politics and sports.

In addition to knowledge, the Dunning-Kruger Effect happens when people overestimate their abilities and are overconfident.

Incidentally, men tend to be 30% more confident about their abilities and women tend to downplay their abilities by 30%.  This leaves a large confidence gap between the sexes.  For children, things are more equal. However, as as girls and boys become teenagers the gap grows.

Who are Dunning and Kruger?

David Dunning and Justin Kruger are psychologists at Cornell University.  These two well educated men were intrigued by the story of a bank robber named McArthur Wheeler.  He believed that video surveillance cameras would not be able to record his face because he had covered it with lemon juice.  This is what initially peaked Dunning and Kruger’s interest in the idea of how a total lack of knowledge about something can blindly lead a person into thinking something that is totally incorrect.

The story is a bit crazy and this video better explains how the Dunning-Kruger effect came to be:

Dunning-Krueger Effect shown with a Graph

Let’s recap.

  • The less someone knows about something, the more likely they are to think they know a lot about it.
  • The more knowledge they gain on a subject, the more they realize that they are inadequate in their limited expertise.
  • As knowledge grows, they cross a threshold to where they actually are closer at becoming an expert.
  • Eventually he moment arrives, through education, experience, or both, that they have legitimate expertise.
  • Being a true expert about something does not mean you won’t fall under the Dunning-Kruger effect in other areas.

A mentioned, these concept also apply to a lack of confidence and over estimating confidence in one’s abilities. However, self confidence is a positive thing that should not be confused with being overconfident.

This graph shows the progression of how one moves through this process. 

Dunning–Kruger Effect 01

The confidence of a person who knows nothing is on the peak of ‘Mount Stupid’, while their competence is in the Valley of Despair.   As they become enlightened, whether though education or experience, they are closer to being an expert – even though they may never get close to it.

An example of a person gaining some insight on a subject through education may be as simple as them watching a NOVA program on space and getting their mind blown by the vastness of space.  Therefore, they would say to themselves.  “There is so much to know about space I realize how far I am away from being an expert on it”.

Sports is an example of a person who gains insight through experience.  If they never play the sport, they may naively think… “That looks easy enough”.  But when they actually play the sport and fail miserably against those are much better, they will correctly acknowledge their lack of competence.

How to Avoid the Dunning-Kruger Effect

Here are something things you can do to ensure you don’t succumb to the trap of making an expert opinion on something you know very little about, and possibly being ridiculed by your peers.

  • Do some research from reliable sources on a subject before you give an opinion on it.
  • Acknowledge that without education and experience, you are more than likely know very little to nothing about any topic.
  • Remember, great expertise on one subject does not mean you won’t fall under the Dunning-Kruger Effect on another subject, especially if you’re not careful.
  • Take Heed!  Nothing is ever as easy as it looks.  Try to understand something in a much broader capacity than you already do.
  • In the case of activities, try to do an activity more fully before relying on what experience you already have.
  • Utilize all the resources at your deposal to be life long self learner.

How to Prevent Plagiarism in Essays, Book Reports, and Web Articles

How to Prevent Plagiarism

Plagiarism is unacceptable whether it happens in academic circles or on online websites. In academic circles, you may receive a zero grade or even face expulsion. If you plagiarize in web articles, search engines won’t rank your content, and it will become invisible. Here is more about plagiarism, why it’s unacceptable and how to prevent it.

What is plagiarism? 

Plagiarism is when you present the work or ideas of another as your own without the consent of the original author or giving the author any acknowledgment. You may not even do this intentionally, but it is still unacceptable.

Why is plagiarism cheating?

Professors in academic institutions want to evaluate your original work and not the work of others. Plagiarism is stealing intellectual property. It is unethical because you benefit from someone else’s efforts. The uniqueness of your work is important as a student. The whole point of your assignments is to evaluate your progress. If you present the work of others as your own, it not only shows poor scholarship but defeats the object of learning.

How to test for plagiarism

If you want to know how to avoid plagiarism in books, articles and other academic writing, using a plagiarism checker is essential. You may not even realize where you are guilty of plagiarism. The highly popular FixGerald tool for students and teachers is a plagiarism checker that will list any instances where you copy directly from an online source or don’t use quotation marks for a quote. A plagiarism fixer gives you an opportunity to reword content that’s too close to an original source and make it unique.

How to avoid plagiarism

When you’re a student and you have to write essays, book reports etc., you need some tips to help you to avoid plagiarism.

  • If you have to read books and write book reports, you can’t just use the words of an author to make a point. You must place the words in quotation marks. You also need to include a footnote or an in-text citation to show the source. If you don’t do so, it looks as though the words are yours and not those of the author.
  • You can’t use the ideas of others in your essays without proper citation. Your instructors will want to know what ideas you came up with yourself and which ones came from consulting different sources. You must acknowledge all the sources of ideas that aren’t your own.
  • If you paraphrase, you need to do so carefully. Just swapping words around is not enough. It is important to present the ideas you found in a source accurately, but you need to describe them in your own language.

How to Prevent Plagiarism in Essays, Book Reports, and Web Articles

As you progress in your studies, you will understand how important it is to use many different sources. You may want to add to existing research you find in scientific literature, such as journal articles. You may argue that existing research is inadequate and discuss why. To do this, you need to be familiar with important research in your field. You will have to refer to many different sources. You will need to cite them correctly using a specific citation style.

Prevent plagiarism in web articles

Bloggers and website owners also need to ensure that their articles are 100% original. Search engines rate original content highly. Any instances of plagiarism will result in lower rankings in search engines. If you have a website for a business, this means less organic traffic to it and fewer chances to convert consumers to customers.

Do not use AI tools to write for you 

There’s nothing wrong with running your essays or articles through some tools like grammar and spelling checkers or the Hemingway App. This can help you to reduce errors and make your writing clearer. It’s when you use AI tools to write your work for you that it can be a problem. A teacher who knows your writing ability and style is likely to identify that you didn’t write the work but used AI to write it.


Plagiarism is not acceptable in academic institutions, and the consequences can be severe. You need to avoid it in online articles and on websites, too, because search engines don’t like unoriginal content. Hopefully, the above ways of avoiding plagiarism will help you. You should always check for plagiarism, as you may have done it without realizing it. If you check and find problems, you can still fix them before you hand in a paper or publish an article.

Why Lean Six Sigma Certification is a must-have for career growth

Lean Six Sigma

Six sigma has enabled large corporations like Google, Amazon, and Wipro to grow significantly. Six sigma is no longer simply associated with manufacturing companies. Enrolling in a lean six sigma course can help in various industries like finance, healthcare, hospitality, etc.

Obtaining your lean six sigma certification will ensure you gain the essential skills to begin your six sigma career.  For those new to these terms, Six Sigma focuses on reducing process variation and enhancing process control.  Lean Six Stigma includes a focus on driving out waste and promotes work standardization and flow.

Let’s check out the benefits of lean six sigma to understand why it’s important for accelerate your  career goals.

1.   Gain an advantage over other applicants

Employers get hundreds of applications for different positions, but they only select certified professionals. Since lean six sigma certification is globally recognized, you will gain an edge in the competition. The certification will prove to employers that you have the relevant skills and experience to improve business operations. Your application will stand out from inexperienced professionals and will make you closer to landing your dream job.

2.   High salary opportunities

Before taking up any position, you must negotiate the salary and other perks. A lean six sigma course will ensure you can stay on top of your bargaining game at the negotiation table. You will see a significant gap between your salary and non-certified professionals.

The salary potential will continue to increase as more businesses warm up to the lean six sigma methodology. Moreover, your salary will increase according to the different levels of the certification. For instance, an individual with six sigma black belt certification will have an average annual salary of $1,06,000 in the US.

3.   Obtain real-world experience

One of the major benefits of a six sigma course is that you learn how to apply the acquired skills. The course will allow you to work on a real-world improvement project with mentoring and support. Additionally, you will become an expert at managing lean projects and implementing process improvements across types of businesses.

4.   Help improve organizational efficiency

All companies following the lean six sigma methodology desire to improve their organizational efficiency. The methodology ensures that all employees are on the same page and are focused on identifying bottlenecks in the process as the process enables companies to produce more with minimal effort, efficiency, and profitability increase.

Team members collaborate better by following the six sigma principles, and employers notice higher productivity and morale. Customers begin receiving products faster with proper measurement of quality standards, which can lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty. Lean six sigma certified professionals are a major win for employees, customers, and the organization.

5.   Transform into a leader and influencer

Similar to all project management tools, leading a team and managing stakeholders is crucial for lean six sigma certified professionals to succeed. Besides the methods and tools, lean six sigma certification is also about managing change, improving project quality, and producing more efficient work.

A lean six sigma online bootcamp ensures that you can easily manage change and handle your team members. You can improve your leadership capability by better understanding team dynamics and change management.

Furthermore, the lean six sigma certification offers you better analytical skills to assess and handle change. You will be able to ensure that your team members have an improved sense of responsibility and ownership for their projects and work. Applying the lean tools and methodology will ensure you have a greater influence on your team members.

6.   Streamline systems and processes

Lean Thinking - The Principles of Lean Six Sigma

Due to the growing complexities in businesses, improving processes and systems has become crucial. By making systems and processes more effective and efficient, the lean six sigma methodology can help businesses. The certification ensures you become familiar with all the tools and techniques required for effective change management.

The lean six sigma course will teach you to spot improvement opportunities, build execution plans, and track progress. You will also learn to maintain effective communication with stakeholders for guaranteed buy-ins from different levels of the organization.

7.   Solve complex problems

The lean six sigma methodology is based on continuous improvement to drive more customer value. The only way to ensure continuous improvement is by easily solving complex problems. The lean technique enables you to improve your thinking skills. The course is a blend of theory and real-world practice to solve problems with a structured learning approach.

8.   Reduce errors and mistakes

Once you get into leadership roles, you must constantly improve your team. The different techniques from a lean six sigma course make it easy for you to handle the errors and mistakes of your team. For instance, you can map out the steps of a process to determine where mistakes are highly likely. Identifying these areas will help prevent errors from taking place again.

9.   Enhance organizational culture

Managers trained in the lean six sigma online bootcamp can create a healthier, happier, and more productive work environment. The skills imparted during the course will ensure you develop a firm grasp of change and quality management. You will become more efficient at identifying and removing roadblocks that prevent the productivity and efficiency of teams.

You can create a work environment conducive to employees by applying lean six sigma principles. A culture of continuous improvement will ensure that managers can motivate employees to work toward fulfilling a shared goal. Organizations adopting the lean six sigma methodology ensure you can enhance employee productivity and satisfaction.

Final Words

A lean six sigma online bootcamp can help you build a robust career in quality management. The live classes delivered by leading experts from Simplilearn will ensure you gain in-depth knowledge of change management. You will also get to work on a capstone project to gain real-world experience.

Career Resources

Using Technology To Gamify Fitness for Your Kids

Using Technology To Gamify Fitness for Your Kids

Some kids are naturally active. They play outside, do sports, and even exercise with you. Then, there are the kids that absolutely despise physical activity. They prefer hobbies that don’t involve exercise, like art, writing, and acting.

But whether your children fall into the first group, the second, or somewhere in between, it’s important to support them in having a healthy, active lifestyle.

Gamifying their fitness routine can encourage physical activity in your kids, whether they love to exercise or hate it. Here’s why.

Why Gamifying Fitness Works for Kids

Gamification is the practice of turning an activity or task into a game or something resembling one. When you add gamelike elements to a sometimes daunting task like exercise, it becomes much more fun and desirable. It’s also easier to complete, which keeps your kids motivated and uplifted.

You can show your children that physical activity doesn’t have to be boring or, worse, so physically and mentally taxing that they never want to do it again. Instead, they can make exercise an enjoyable activity that keeps them fit and challenged.

A Significant Drawback to Gamification

As beneficial as gamifying fitness can be for your kids, there’s a significant drawback to consider. Gamifying fitness can include fun games like obstacle courses, nature walks, and tag. But for this article, we’re talking about gamifying fitness with technology. And that, unfortunately, means more screen time.

Whether your kids are playing a fitness game on their Xbox, following along with a fun workout on their smartphones, or doing some interactive games on their smartwatches, they’re staring at a screen to do it.

Increased screen time for kids can result in a shorter attention span, irritability, neck/shoulder pain, and behavioral issues. It also leads to longer exposure to harmful blue light.

Blue light glasses and filters can help ease the negative effects on your kids’ eyes when they’re engaging with screens. However, it’s best to limit your kids’ screen time. Gamified fitness routines may mean more screens, but that doesn’t mean you can’t put a time limit on how long they participate.

Four Tips for Gamifying the Fitness Experience for Your Kids

Aside from paying attention to screen time, do the following to ensure the gamified fitness experience for your kids is the healthiest and most enjoyable it can be.

Talk Exercise and Fitness Goals With Your Children

It’s incredibly important to talk about exercise and fitness goals with your children. Part of the reason they aren’t excited about physical activities is they don’t have a positive outlook on fitness or any goals to strive for.

Sit down with your kids and discuss getting them to be more physically active. Talk about why fitness is important to their holistic health. See what they say about exercise and listen to why they are or aren’t excited about it.

You may find out they’re struggling with fitness because physical activity is difficult for them in their current state. Or, it just hasn’t been a fun thing for them to do. That’s when you can bring up gamifying fitness.

Once they’re on board with creating a more consistent fitness routine, set some goals. Have your kids write down what they want to achieve as they add more exercise to their lives.

It’s also important to find out your kids’ level of interest in gaming.

Find Out Your Kids’ Level of Interest in Gaming

Gamifying fitness will work a lot better for your kids if they have an actual interest in gaming.

Find out how into gaming your kids are by asking things like:

  • Which consoles are they fond of?
  • What kind of video and computer games do they play?
  • Why do they play them?

Note their answers to these and other questions that give you an idea of their gaming interests.  Really digging into your kids’ gaming interests will give you a blueprint for how to best personalize the gamified fitness experience for them.

Explore Wearables

We’ll get into games and consoles that are good for gamifying fitness for your kids in the next section. But don’t forget to tap into the power of wearables. Wearables are electronic devices that people wear comfortably on their bodies.

Some of the most common wearable devices are:

  • Fitness trackers;
  • Biosensors;
  • Smart health watches;
  • Blood pressure monitors;
  • ECG monitors.

Wearables can positively impact anyone’s fitness journey, children included, as they make it easy to proactively monitor one’s health. You can also watch fitness videos and participate in games that encourage physical activity from these devices.

The Fitbit Ace 3, Garmin Vivofit Jr. 2, Apple Watch SE, and these other watches and trackers are some of the best on the market right now for kids. Many of the trackers and watches made specifically for kids already include gamified fitness features on them.

Do more research on the wearable tech options out there for kids. If you can take your kids to a physical store that sells them so they can try them out before making a purchase, even better.

Choose the Best Games and Consoles

To truly use technology to gamify fitness for kids, you must make good game and console choices. In other words, choose games and consoles that encourage physical activity.

Here are some console choices to get you started:

  • Nintendo Switch;
  • Xbox Kinect/Xbox One;
  • Nintendo Wii Sports;
  • Quell fitness gaming console;
  • VR headset and accessories.

Depending on the gaming consoles you have, put these games on your list:

  • Wii Fit Plus;
  • BOXVR;
  • Dance Party;
  • Ring Fit Adventure;
  • Pokemon Go;
  • Zumba Fitness: World Party.

There are many more games and consoles to choose from. Explore them with your children and don’t be afraid to experiment.


Getting your kids to be more physically active can be tough at times. But with the help of gamification, you can spark their interest and keep them motivated to consistently pursue a more active lifestyle.

About the Author
About the AuthorKatie Brenneman is a passionate writer specializing in education, mental health, family lifestyle and online safety. When she isn’t writing, you can find her with her nose buried in a book or hiking with her dog, Charlie. You can follow her on Twitter.

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