How Parenting Affects Child Development

How Parenting Affects Child Development

Parents’ influences on children’s development have long piqued the curiosity of developmental psychologists. Finding true cause-and-effect correlations between individual parental acts and children’s later conduct, on the other hand, is extremely challenging.

Some youngsters raised in vastly different surroundings can develop astonishingly similar personalities later in life. On the other hand, Children who share a house and are reared in the same environment can create different personalities as adults.

The parenting style affects child development and those effects on children can be seen throughout their lives. Family functioning is also affected by the types of parenting that the parents follow. These factors affect child development and the child’s temperament as well. Do you know about parenting styles which are mostly encouraged in Modern America?

Also, today’s digital world has changed the way of parenting to a huge extent. Lots of parents have improvised their parenting by using various parental control apps that are used to track and monitor online activities of children. It is also used to track social media activities, monitor Snapchat, Facebook, WhatsApp, Viber,etc.

Despite these obstacles, academics have proposed that parenting styles and their consequences on children are linked, and some researchers believe these effects persist until adulthood. This article dives into how parenting affects child development in depth with types of parenting and their effect on child development.

The Four Parenting Styles

Diana Baumrind, a psychologist, researched over 100 preschool-aged children in the 1960s. She found certain key aspects of parenting through naturalistic observation, parental interviews, and other study approaches.

Discipline tactics, warmth and nurturing, communication styles, and maturity and control expectations are among these factors. Baumrind proposed that most parents have one of three parenting styles based on these dimensions.

Maccoby and Martin’s later studies proposed introducing a fourth parenting style. Each of these has a different impact on the behavior of children. By studying the types of parenting styles we can know How parenting affects child development at various levels.

1.  Authoritarian Parenting

Children are expected to follow the rigorous restrictions established by the parents under this parenting style. Failure to observe such guidelines is frequently met with retaliation. Authoritarian parents never explain the reasons for these rules. If pressed, the parent may respond, “Because I said so.”

Many parents are not very sensitive to their children despite their great expectations. They want their children to behave admirably and avoid making mistakes, but they give very little guidance on what they should do or avoid in the future. Mistakes are punished, often harshly, but their progeny are frequently left wondering what went wrong.

These parents, according to Baumrind, are “obedience- and status-oriented, and want their directives to be followed without question.” They are frequently labeled as autocratic and overbearing. “Spare the rod, pamper the child” is their philosophy. Children are expected to obey without inquiry.

2.     Authoritative Parenting

An authoritative parenting style, like authoritarian parenting, establishes rules and principles for their children to follow. This parenting method, on the other hand, is far more democratic.

Authoritative parents respond to their children’s queries and are willing to listen to them. These parents have high expectations for their children, but they treat them with kindness, provide feedback, and provide enough support. When their children do not reach their parents’ standards, they are more loving and forgiving than harsh.

According to Baumrind, these parents “Parents should keep an eye on their children’s behavior and instill clear expectations. They are aggressive, but not overbearing or confining. Rather than being punitive, their disciplinary tactics are supportive. They want their children to be aggressive and socially responsible, as well as self-controlled and cooperative.”

Children of authoritative parents benefit from expectation and support in developing abilities like independence, self-control, and self-regulation.

3.     Permissive Parenting

Permissive parents, often known as indulgent parents, place few restrictions on their children. Because they have low expectations of maturity and self-control, these parents rarely reprimand their children.

Permissive parents, according to Baumrind, “They’re more accommodating than demanding. They are unconventional and lenient, requiring no adult behavior, allowing for a lot of self-control, and avoiding confrontation.”

Permissive parents are often loving and communicative with their children, and they frequently assume the role of a friend rather than a parent.

4.     Uninvolved Parenting

In addition to Baumrind’s three basic parenting styles, Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin, psychologists, proposed a fourth: uninvolved or neglectful parenting. Few demands, poor responsiveness, and limited communication describe an uninvolved parenting style.

While these parents meet their children’s fundamental necessities, they are often absent from their children’s lives. They may ensure that their children are fed and housed, but they provide little to no rules, guidance, structure, or support. These parents may even reject or ignore their children’s needs in other situations.

The Impact of Parenting Styles

What impact do various parenting methods have on children’s growth and development? Researchers have done a variety of studies on the effects of parenting styles on children and Baumrind’s first study of 100 preschool children. The following are some of the findings:

  • Authoritarian parenting techniques produce obedient and capable children, but they are less happy, socially competent, and have low self-esteem.
  • Authoritative parenting techniques are likely to produce happy, capable, and successful children.
  • Permissive parenting frequently leads to children who are unhappy and lack self-control. These children are more prone to have issues with authority and have low academic performance.
  • Parenting approaches that are uninvolved rank lowest across all life domains. These kids have poor self-control, and low self-esteem, and are less capable than their peers.

Authoritative Parenting Has Its Benefits

Children are more likely to follow their parents’ directions if viewed as sensible, fair, and just. Furthermore, because these parents supply both rules and justifications, their children are much more likely to internalize the lessons. The authoritative parenting style can shed some light on How parenting affects child development as well.

Rather than just following the rules out of fear of punishment (as with authoritarian parents), authoritative children can know why the rules exist, realize that they are fair and appropriate, and attempt to follow them to satisfy their own internalized sense of right and wrong.

Individual parents’ parenting styles also mix to form a unique blend in each family. For example, the mother may have an authoritative demeanor, but the father may have a more lenient behavior.

This can occasionally result in a jumble of signals. Parents must learn to collaborate and mix their different parenting styles to establish a unified parenting strategy.

Limitations and Criticisms of Parenting Style Research

Correlational research is useful for detecting links between variables but cannot demonstrate conclusive cause-and-effect relationships, and is used to link parenting methods with behavior. While there is evidence that a certain parenting style is connected to a particular pattern of behavior, other essential factors such as a child’s temperament can also play a significant impact.

There’s also evidence that a child’s conduct affects parenting techniques. According to a study released in 2006, parents of children who demonstrated challenging behavior began to lose parental control over time.

These findings show that children misbehave not because their parents were overly permissive, but because parents of difficult or violent children gave up trying to govern their children.

The researchers also pointed out that the links between parenting styles and behaviors aren’t always strong.  Many times, the expected child outcomes do not occur; authoritarian parents have children who are disobedient or participate in delinquent behavior, whereas permissive parents have children who are self-assured and academically successful.

Parenting practices and child outcomes are influenced by cultural influences as well. In his book Essentials of Psychology, author Douglas Bernstein argues, “There is no universally “optimal” way of parenting.” Authoritative parenting, which has been connected to positive results in European American households, is not associated with improved school performance in African American or Asian American children.”

Read what is lawnmower parenting and why is it so detrimental to children.


Parents don’t always fall into one of these categories, so don’t be discouraged if you have periods or regions where you’re more permissive and times when you’re more authoritative. It’s difficult to maintain consistency while juggling life and parenthood. Don’t feel guilty or ashamed as a parent. That isn’t helpful.

However, research shows that authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style. However, even if you identify more with other parenting styles, you can take measures to become a more authoritative parent. With the knowledge of parenting styles, we can know how parenting affects child development in detail with cause and effect as well.

You can keep a pleasant relationship with your child while still healthily establishing your authority if you are dedicated and committed to being the best parent you can be. Your youngster will profit from your assertive manner in the long run.

Online IQ Tests | Kids’ IQ Scores | All You Need to Know

Onilne IQ Test for Kids

It’s not uncommon for parents is to be curious about how smart and creative their kids are. Of course, there are many IQ tests you can take to measure your IQ score, but remember that measuring kids’ IQ is a bit sensitive.

As the test’s result can impact their feeling and their future, you have to be more careful about it. It’s good to know some details before taking the tests.

Here are all you need to know about kids’ IQ scores and tests.

What is IQ?

A child’s or person’s IQ is a measure of their general intellect. The Binet-Simon test was created in the early 1900s by French psychologist Alfred Binet and physician Theodore Simon. The Binet-Simon test was created to assess the IQ of children with mental disabilities.

Testing revealed that as youngsters grew older, the difference between their mental and chronological ages expanded. The intelligence quotient was devised in 1912 by German psychologist William Stern to correlate with the gap (IQ).

The intelligence quotient is calculated by dividing the chronological age by 100 times the mental age (MA) (CA).

What does IQ measure?

IQ tests assess the following skills:

Verbal reasoning

Verbal reasoning is about understanding and using words – verbal concept development, reasoning, and expression.


Seeing visual details, comprehending spatial relationships and construction ability, comprehending the relationship between parts and the whole, and combining visual and motor abilities.

Fluid reasoning

Seeing the meaningful link between visual items and applying that knowledge utilizing the notion of fluid reasoning.

Working memory

Demonstrating attention and focus, as well as the ability to keep information in mind and work with it; comprises one visual and one aural subtest.

Processing speed

Visual scanning and object identification speed and accuracy, short-term memory, and visual-motor coordination are all factors in processing speed.

Kids’ IQ Scores

The average IQ is thought to be 100. The IQ of a youngster can range from 0 to 250. The bulk of the youngsters tested had IQs between 80 and 120.

There is a categorization for each IQ range. An IQ of 140 or more is called genius, 120-140 is regarded as extremely superior intellect, 110-120 is considered superior intelligence, 90-110 is considered normal or average, 70-80 is a borderline deficit, and below 70 is considered cognitively retarded.

For children aged 6 to 16, the WISC-V is regarded as the “gold standard” IQ test. As a result, it is a vital part of any psycho-educational assessment. It is usually given since it gives a clear picture of a kid’s strengths and shortcomings, as well as reasonable expectations for his or her performance: a youngster with average potential may expect to work in the average range.

It’s a popular misconception that the “IQ,” which refers to the Full-Scale IQ, is an essential aspect of an intelligence exam.

You must evaluate not just the Full-Scale number but also the consistency of the scales. Here’s a checklist:

Composite IQ Score Traditional Interpretation WISC-V Description
>129 Very Superior Extremely High
120 – 129 Superior Very High
110 – 119 High Average High Average
90 – 109 Average Average
80 – 89 Low Average Low Average
70 – 79 Borderline Very Low
<70 Extremely Low Extremely Low

Where to measure your kid’s IQ

You and your child can both take a variety of IQ tests, some of which are available online. The good thing is that many of them are completely free, so you won’t have to worry about money.

For your children, here are some of the greatest free online IQ tests:

IQ Exam

IQ Exam is a free online exam that is one of the most accurate in the world. IQ Exam is tougher than other IQ tests since it needs you to answer 30 questions.

The exams were created and utilized in academic research, so they can reliably assess your cognitive abilities.

Although the test may appear tough to children, they have attempted to make it as convenient as possible for all participants.

You are not charged for taking this scientific IQ test as many times as you like.

One of the most crucial aspects of this test is that it has no time restriction. They don’t want to put any pressure on you since it can impact your performance.

There are no restrictions, and you or your children of any age can readily engage in this exam.

Free IQTest

Free IQTest is a basic online exam that is appropriate for children. There is no need to subscribe, and the results will be available shortly after you complete the exam.

They also include an HTML code for displaying your IQ score on your blog or CV, as well as your grade, categorization, and exam time.

The exam consists of 20 questions that are based on the WAIS formula. In this test, time is of importance, and your scores will reflect that.

Of course, you should not allow your child to become anxious in order to achieve the greatest potential result. The exam is completely anonymous, and you may take it as many times as you like.


They’re providing several useful psychometric tests online. All of their psychometric tests are created by qualified psychologists and test developers, and all test results are provided for free.

123test is self-contained, and our tests are available to you. There is no need to create an account, and you may take exams entirely anonymously.

Every year, almost 30 million people throughout the world utilize 123test. They employ around 140 different assessments in five different languages.

They suggest that if you want a complete assessment of your child’s intelligence, have an IQ test for children administered by a qualified psychologist or educationalist in cooperation with the child’s school.


When you, as parents, want your child’s intelligence tested, it’s usually because your kid looks to have extremely low or extremely high intelligence. Regular school examinations and progress tests will likely serve in all other circumstances. Because an IQ test for children is only required in exceptional circumstances, the stakes for those concerned are higher. Is the kid in need of special education? Is the kid very brilliant, requiring remedial instruction? This sort of discovery can have far-reaching implications.

Regardless of a child’s IQ score, here are some free learning apps that can help them develop critical thinking.

How to Make a Family Tree With Kids

How to Make a Family Tree with Kids

Making a family tree with kids is a great way to teach them about their ancestry while helping them learn more about themselves. It can be a fun project that the whole family can work on together. Here are some tips for getting started.

Benefits of Building a Family Tree with Kids

There are many benefits to creating a family tree, such as understanding your genealogy, developing problem-solving skills, strengthening relationships, and many others.

Build a stronger sense of self-identity

Building a family tree with kids can help them develop a stronger sense of self-identity as they learn more about where they came from and what makes them unique.

Knowing where you come from is important to understanding who you are. For kids, this process of self-discovery often begins with learning about their parents and grandparents. But it can be even more enlightening for them to explore the branches of their family tree, discovering the stories and traditions passed down through the generations.

So whether you’re looking to teach your kids about their heritage or just want to bond with them over some shared history, building a family tree is a great way to do it.

Learn more about history

It is important for kids to learn about history, but making the past feel relevant to their lives can be tough. One way to do this is by teaching them about their family history. By tracing their ancestors, kids can start to see how they fit into the larger story of humanity. They can also learn about the unique challenges and experiences their ancestors faced. Additionally, exploring family trees can help kids understand the similarities and differences between their own lives and those of their ancestors. As a result, learning about family history can make the past feel more real and relevant to kids.

Build strong family relationships

As any family historian knows, building a family tree can be a rewarding experience. Not only does it help you to learn more about your ancestors, but it also encourages you to bond with your relatives. For children, this can be a particularly valuable experience. It is all too easy for children to become estranged from their extended families in today’s world, especially when there are not old family photos of many relatives. By working together to build a family tree, children can develop a sense of connection with their cousins and other extended family members. This can help to foster communication and understanding within the family.

How to Make a Family Tree

Trying to trace your family history can be a daunting task. Putting it all in a family tree is a great way to organize the information you’ve gathered.

Gather information

The first step is to gather as much information as possible about your ancestors. This includes names, hometowns, careers, achievements, and known locations. You should also try to determine the birth and death dates for each ancestor. Once you have collected this information, you can construct your family tree. Start with the oldest generation of your family and work your way down to the present. Be sure to include any spouses or children for each ancestor. If you are having trouble filling in some of the details, don’t hesitate to reach out to other family members for help.

Put your tree on paper

At a time when almost everything is done electronically, there are still some who prefer the old-fashioned way of doing things. For them, there is nothing like the feeling of holding a pencil and paper in their hands as they try to piece together their family history. While it may take a bit longer, creating a family tree on paper can be very rewarding. It allows you to physically see your progress, but it also gives you a chance to add your personal touches. Whether you choose to use colored pencils or family photos, a paper family tree can be a beautiful and meaningful addition to your home. Even if you own a computer, there is something special about having a physical record of your family’s history. Keeping a family tree on paper is the only way to go for those who value tradition.

One option is to use a family tree printable template. There are many different templates available online, and you can choose one that best suits your needs. You can also find templates specifically designed for certain countries or regions. Once you’ve found a template you like, simply print it out and fill in the information by hand. You may also want to use a pencil to erase any mistakes.

Consider family tree software

With modern computer technology, anyone can search for people and research their ancestorsto build a family tree. There are dozens of family tree software programs available, and most come with a tutorial to help you get started. Keeping your records on your computer has some advantages over traditional paper records. It’s easier to fix mistakes, and you can sort your ancestors differently.

Plus, every genealogy software package lets you print off your information on various forms and charts. But regardless of how you store your data, it’s important to back up your records regularly. If your computer crashes or you accidentally delete a file, you won’t lose all your hard work. And if possible, use an automatic online backup service to ensure that your data is always safe.

Share your tree

Once your child has completed their family tree, encourage them to share it with relatives who might have additional information or stories to add. This is a great way for kids to get excited about their family history and learn more about the people who came before them. Plus, it’s a great opportunity to connect with relatives they might not otherwise have the chance to talk to. So encourage your child to share their family tree with relatives.

Final Thoughts

Building a family tree with your kids is a fun project, but it can also be educational. It helps children learn about their ancestors and teaches them the importance of preserving family history. By following these simple steps, you can help your child create a lasting legacy treasured for generations to come.

Check out FamilySearch for more ways to get your kids involved in family history.

About the author:  Marc McDermott is a genealogist who has been blogging about the topic since 2019. His blog,, is one of the most popular resources on the internet for people looking to learn more about their family history. Marc’s passion for genealogy is evident in his writing, and he takes great joy in helping others learn more about their ancestors.

Developmental Dangers of YouTube

Developmental Dangers of YouTube

YouTube is one of the most engaging platforms. So engaging, in fact, that even our children are getting hooked. What they don’t realize is that too much time on YouTube is potentially developmentally damaging. As parents, it’s up to us to shield our children from the adverse effects of too much time on YouTube.

We can start by replacing that time with enriching activities our children will love. These five tips can help you make the transition.

Discuss the Harmful Effects of YouTube

It’s essential to discuss the harmful effects of YouTube with your children in a way they can understand. If they can genuinely resonate with and comprehend what you’re saying to them, they’ll be more likely to decrease their use of YouTube willingly.

Talk in-depth about how too much YouTube can result in not getting enough time to do things together like read. Reading to your child can provide them with various developmental skills, including the desire to read more by themselves. Reading is integral to academic and professional success. Be transparent about how not learning to read effectively can stall their progression in life.

Discuss how social media can affect their mental health as well. Ask them if they’ve experienced any of what you’re talking about while using YouTube to help them resonate with the discussion even more. Allow them to open up about how they feel about limiting their use of the platform.

Once you discuss the harmful effects of YouTube with your children, the next step is limiting their screen time. Your children won’t like it at first, but restricting their screen time will emphasize how serious you are. You can reduce their screen time in phases so that it isn’t such a shock to your kids.

When you limit your children’s screen time, you must fill it with off-screen activities like sports.

Encourage Participation in Sports

Sports are fantastic for children of all ages. Not only do sports get your kids out of the house and offline, but they can also teach them skills they can take with them into adulthood. For example, they can learn to take constructive criticism when working with coaches or how to develop a solid work ethic.

If your children aren’t interested in traditional sports, look for creative alternatives like eSports. They can participate in sport-like competitions online while still honing soft skills like teamwork, problem-solving, and self-confidence.

Whether eSports or traditional sports, find out which specific ones your children want to participate in. Sign them up and see how things progress.

In addition to sports, explore creative passions with your children.

Explore Creative Passions

You’ll start to hear less and less about YouTube if you encourage your children to explore their creative passions. Instead of YouTube being an outlet, replace it with a creative activity.

Nudge your kids to explore their offline creative passions before diving into any online. Then, do your best to make those creative passions a part of your children’s daily to draw their attention away from YouTube slowly. Before you know it, they’ll be more interested in exploring their creativity.

Creative passions can be a part of your children’s self-care, too.  They can also learn how to engage online safely including while on YouTube.

Prioritize Self-Care

Make self-care a priority for you and your children. When you prioritize self-care, you teach your children how to love and honor themselves. You give them a chance to get to know themselves. You also provide them an opportunity to appreciate being present.

To prioritize self-care, the first step is to have an initial conversation with your children about what self-care is and why it’s crucial. Next, work with them to develop a list of self-care activities unique to their interests and needs.

Then, categorize these activities by whether they’ll be done daily, weekly, monthly, or less often. Once they’re categorized, put them on the calendar. Have your kids check them off as they’re completed to keep them enthusiastic about self-care.

Also, be sure you’re making a consistent effort with self-care and the rest of the activities above.

Be Consistent

Consistency is key in most things, especially in your attempts to decrease your children’s time on YouTube. You’ll quickly fall back into your old YouTube habits without a consistent effort. So, be consistent in making this a lifestyle change.

Here are a few ideas to stay consistent in your efforts to decrease the use of YouTube in your household:

  • Create a daily schedule for your children
  • Strengthen your mindset and help your kids do the same
  • Designate a specific time to turn off electronics each night
  • Reinforce the positive changes your children are making constantly
  • Stick to a family schedule regarding when and how long everyone can use YouTube each day

Ultimately, be consistent to ensure offline activities become the norm over hours of video content on YouTube every day.


The developmental dangers of YouTube aren’t something to take lightly. It’s essential to protect yourself and your children from videos and other digital content that negatively impacts growth.

You can do so by first being transparent about the harmful effects of YouTube with your children to help them understand why you’re implementing new boundaries around screen time.

Then, focus on off-screen activities like sports, self-care, and creative passions your children are interested in. And finally, be consistent with your efforts to guide your kids away from YouTube and toward a fuller, real life.

About the Author
About the AuthorKatie Brenneman is a passionate writer specializing in education, mental health, family lifestyle and online safety. When she isn’t writing, you can find her with her nose buried in a book or hiking with her dog, Charlie. You can follow her on Twitter.

Safer Search

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